Silicon Steel

I. Introduction

Silicon steel, also known as electrical steel, is a type of silicon alloy steel containing 1.0–4.5% silicon and less than 0.08% carbon. It is renowned for its high magnetic permeability, low coercivity, and high electrical resistivity, making it crucial in the power equipment, electronics, and military industries. Silicon steel is primarily used for the magnetic materials in motors, transformers, electrical appliances, and electrical instruments, playing a vital role in improving the efficiency and reducing energy consumption of power equipment.

II. Definition

Silicon steel refers to Fe-Si soft magnetic alloy, with a silicon content typically ranging from 0.4% to 6.5% (by mass). It is widely used in the power industry due to its excellent magnetic properties, such as high magnetic permeability and low core loss.

III. Applications

Silicon steel is mainly used for the production of motor cores, transformer cores, and various electrical components. Due to its low core loss and high magnetic flux density, it effectively saves electrical energy, extends the operating time of motors and transformers, and simplifies cooling systems.

IV. Classification

  1. Classification by Silicon Content:
    • Low-silicon sheets (low-grade): Possessing a certain degree of mechanical strength, they are primarily used for motor cores.
    • High-silicon sheets (high-grade): With superior magnetic properties but brittleness, they are mainly used for transformer cores.
  2. Classification by Production Process:
    • Hot-rolled silicon steel: Produced through hot rolling processes.
    • Cold-rolled silicon steel: Further divided into grain-oriented silicon steel and non-oriented silicon steel. Grain-oriented silicon steel has its grains oriented primarily in one direction, suitable for transformer cores; while non-oriented silicon steel has randomly distributed grains, suitable for motor cores.

V. Common Grades

Silicon steel grades vary to meet different industrial needs and performance requirements:

  1. General Grades: Such as Q195, Q215, Q235, etc., used for low-end electrical appliances, electromagnetic devices, etc., known for their economy and practicality.
  2. High Magnetic Permeability Grades: Including 23Q100, 23Q110, 23ZH85, etc., used in mid-to-high-end electrical appliances, electric tools, relays, measuring instruments, etc., characterized by high magnetic permeability, low loss, and good thermal stability.
  3. Ultra-Low Loss Grades: Such as 35CS210, 35CS250, 35CS270, etc., used in high-end electronics, computer power supplies, UPS power supplies, etc., boasting ultra-low loss, low noise, and high magnetic conductivity.

Silicon steel, as an essential electrical material, plays a crucial role in the power, electronics, and military industries. Its diverse classifications and grades cater to various industrial needs and performance requirements, providing strong support for the manufacturing and performance improvement of power equipment.